Migraines are a type of headache that can cause severe throbbing pain, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound. Here are some common symptoms of migraines:
- Intense, throbbing pain, often on one side of the head
- Sensitivity to light, sound, and/or smells
- Nausea and/or vomiting
- Blurred vision or visual disturbances
- Tingling or numbness in the face or limbs
- Dizziness or lightheadedness
- Difficulty speaking
The exact causes of migraines are not fully understood, but they are thought to be related to changes in the brainstem and its interactions with the trigeminal nerve, a major pain pathway. Migraines may also be triggered by various factors, including:
- Hormonal changes (in women)
- Certain foods and drinks (such as alcohol, chocolate, and caffeine)
- Stress and anxiety
- Changes in sleep patterns or sleep deprivation
- Weather changes or barometric pressure fluctuations
- Bright or flashing lights
- Strong smells
Here are some things to avoid while having a migraine:
- Trigger foods: If you notice that certain foods or drinks trigger your migraines, avoid them during an episode.
- Bright lights: Dim the lights or stay in a dark room to reduce visual stimulation.
- Loud noises: Minimize noise levels and try to stay in a quiet environment.
- Strong smells: Avoid strong odors such as perfumes or cleaning products.
- Computer/phone screens: Staring at a screen for a long time can worsen symptoms, so take frequent breaks or avoid using screens altogether.
- Strenuous activity: Avoid exercise or other strenuous activities that can worsen symptoms.
- Stress: Try to avoid stressful situations as much as possible, and practice relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation, or yoga.
- Dehydration: Drink plenty of water to avoid dehydration, which can worsen headaches.